Ver la versión completa : Lo básico (en inglés)

01/02/2007, 23:41
Personal pronouns

I = first person singular (yo)
You = second person singular and plural (vos, tú, usted, ustedes)
He = third person singular masculine (él)
She = third person singular femenine (ella)
It = third person singular neuter (esto; se usa para animales o cosas)
We = first person plural (nosotros)
They = third person plural (ellos)

Possessive pronoun

I = my (mi)
You = your (tu)
He = his (su)
She= her (su)
It = its (su)
We = our (nuestro)
They = their (su)

Verb to be (ser o estar)

Present tense


I am
You / we / they are
He / she / it is


I am not
You/we/they aren't
He/she/it isn't

aren't = are not
isn't = is not


Am I ...?
Are you/we/they... ?
Is he/she/it...?

Past tense


I / he / she / it was
You / we / they were


I/he/she/it wasn't
You/we/they weren't

wasn't = was not
weren't = were not


Was I/he/she/it ...?
Were you/we/they... ?

1. Present simple

We use the simple present:
1_ for a state, unlimited by time: She lives in Chicago.
2_ for a routine or habit: They get up every morning at eight.
3_for thinks that are always true: Water freezes at zero degrees Centigrade.


I live here
you live here
he lives here
she lives here
it lives here
we live here
they live here


I don´t live here.
you live here
he doesn´t live here.
she doesn´t live here.
it doesn´t live here.
we don´t live here.
they don´t live here.

don't = do not
doesn't = does not


Do I live here?
Do you live here?
Does he live here?
Does she live here?
Does it live here?
Do we live here?
Do they live here?

1.1. Frecuency adverbs

Always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely and never are the most common frecuency adverbs. They tell us how often an event occurs.
They are placed between subject and verb, but sometimes, usually and often are also common at the beginning and end of clauses:
We always get to school by bus.
Sometimes I wonder why I talk to you at all!

They follow auxiliarity verbs, an the verb to be:
He is usually here at this time.
I have never seen a poisonous snake.

2. Present continuous

We use the present continuous:
1_ for an event happening at the moment of speaking: They are watching TV.
2_ for a state made to seem more temporary: He´s living with relatives at the moment.

Time expressions commonly used with the present continuous are at the moment and now.


I am eating my breakfast
you are eating your breakfast
he is eating his breakfast.
she is eating her breakfast.
it is eating its breakfast.
we are eating our breakfast
they are eating their breakfast


I am not eating my breakfast
you aren´t eating your breakfast.
he isn´t eating his breakfast.
she isn´t eating her breakfast.
it isn´t eating its breakfast.
we aren´t eating our breakfast.
they aren´t eating their breakfast.


Am I eating my breakfast?
Are you eating your breakfast?
Is he eating his breakfast.
Is she eating her breakfast.
Is it eating its breakfast.
Are we eating our breakfast.
Are they eating their breakfast.

There are some verbs that cannot normally be used in the continuous form. Verbs mainly used only in the simple form are:

1_ Know, understand, believe and similar verbs.
2_ Own, cost, belong to, contain, depend and similar verbs.
3_ Verbs of sensation such as see, hear and smell are often used with can or could.

Avisen si algo está mal. Esto lo estoy sacando de mi viejo cuaderno de notas.

02/02/2007, 00:06
3. Past simple

We use the simple past:
1_ for a finished event in the past: I went to my grandmother´s house last Saturday.
2_ for narratives or stories: We left New York and flew to Chicago.
3_ for past habits: I usually went to the cinema every Saturday.

The verbs in past can be regular o irregular. (A los verbos regulares se les agrega "ed" al final; los irregulares cambian. Ej: jump es un verbo regular. En pasado es jumped. Buy es un verbo irregular. En pasado es bought.)


They bought a new bike.

S (subject/sujeto) + V (verb in past simple) + rest of the sentence


They didn´t buy a new bike

S + didn't + V + rest of the sentence


Did they buy a new bike?

Did + S + V (in present simple) + rest of the sentence

4. Past continuous

We use the past continuous:
1_ For a long, unfinished action in contrast with a sudden, complete one. This is sometimes an interruption: While I was cooking the dinner, the phone rang.
2_For background action in narrative, in contrast with the main narrative events: A lot of people were standing outside, shouting. Some of them were waving banners. I parked the car, and wached.


I was eating pizza.

S + was/were + V + -ing + rest of the sentence


I wasn't eating pizza.

S + wasn't/weren't + V + -ing + rest of the sentence


Was I eating pizza?

Was/were + S + V + -ing + rest of the sentence

02/02/2007, 13:20
Used to

1_Used to describes a habitual action which has now finished, often in contrast with the present: I used to play tennis, but I don´t have the time now.

She used to like jazz.

I didn´t used to like jazz.

Did you used to like jazz?

Be used to

1_Be used to describes thinks we generally do: I´m not used to going out with boys.
2_ It describes thinks we are accustomed to: They are used to long bus journeys.

We are used to getting up early.

She isn´t used to getting up early.

Are they used to getting up early?


We use will:
1_To make predictions: I think it will rain tomorrow.
2_To make a decision: I´ll take this one, please.
3_To make an offer: I ´ll do the washing up.
4_To make a promise: I ´ll pay you back the money tomorrow.
5_To make an arrangement: I ´ll see you tomorrow.

I´ll stay here.
The family will stay here.

'll = will

We won´t stay here.

won't = will not

Will they stay here?

05/02/2007, 01:32
Going to
Going to is used:
1_To show a plan or intention: They´re going to buy a house in Leeds.
2_ To make a prediction based on the beginning or the cause of the event: Look at that crazy driver! He is going to crash!

Future continuous

We use the future continuous for a temporary action(as in the present continuous) but related to a point in the future:

At the moment I´m working in my office(present)
This time next week I´ll be liying on the beach(future)

Future use or present continuous

Present continuous can be used to refer to the future for a fixed arragement. This is very common when describing social arragements, and is often used with verbs of motions such as come and go. A time expression is usually used to make the meaning clear:

What are you doing on Saturday?
I´m going to France next summer.

08/02/2007, 21:57
Present perfect simple

We use the present perfect simple:
1_For states starting in the past and lasting until the present: I´ve known him for twenty years.
2_For an event in the past, for which no definitive time is giving: I´ve visited Rome twice.
3_For an indefinitive event which we think of as being very recent: The shop on the corner has closed.
4_Where we feel that the result of an event is still present: The electricity has gone off.

I have decided.
He has decided.

You haven´t decided.
She hasn´t decided.

Have we decided?
Has it decided?

It indicates the beginning of a period of time: I´ve been here since last Friday.
This is when she went there.

This refers to a period of time: She went to Holland for three weeks.
This is how long she stayed there.

I have already been to Rome.

Have I read this book yet?
I haven´t been to Rome yet.

I still haven´t read this book.

Negative duration

1_ To express negative duration (how long something hasn´t happened for), use the Present Perfect simple:

I haven´t visited them for years.
I haven´t spoken French since I was at school. (not I haven´t been speaking...)

2_ Other structures that express negative duration:

-The last time I visited them was years ago.
The last time I spoke French was at school.
-It´s years since I (last) visited them.
It´s three years since I (last) spoke French.

Present perfect continuous

We use the present perfect continuous:
1_To suggest that an action starting in the past has only just finished, or may continue: I´ve been cleaning the house all day.
2_ To show the length of the action starting in the past: I´ve been waiting for you for hours.
3_ To show incompleteness. Compare:
I´ve been reading that book you lent me. (not finished) I´ve read that book you lent me. (finished)
4_To show a repeated activity: I´ve been going to the theatre a lot lately.


I have been working.
He has been working.


You haven´t been working.
She hasn´t been working.


Have we been working?
Has it been working?

Past perfect simple

1_ We use it to go back from a point in the past to events that had happened earlier:

I came home at 4 o´clock, but it was too lat: my brother had already left.

I/he/we had worked.

I/she/they hadn´t worked.

Had I/it/we worked?

Past perfect continuous
1_ We use it to talk about activities that had been happened in the past.

I/she/they had been working.

I/he/we hadn´t been working.

Had I/it/we been working?

09/02/2007, 22:14
Pon algo para los que estamos en el nivel Preintermedio...

09/02/2007, 23:51
¿Como qué?

07/03/2007, 17:04
Adjunto el resto de mis apuntes, porque andar pasando los cuadros me resulta una tarea tediosa.

07/03/2007, 17:06

10/03/2007, 17:20
All of the information given above is really interesting. Thanks for it, dear Gise. "You're beautiful", as they say in America when congratulating someone.

What about the "ain't" pattern, so familiar to the black community in the States?

Do you remember, for instance, Michael Jackson singing "Ain't nobody's business, but mine and my baby", in "The Way You Make Me Feel" ? He also says "You ain't nothing" in the Bad video.

Greetings and thanks for your help. :kiss:

10/03/2007, 20:53
I only know for sure that they usually use "ain't" as a substitution for are not (aren't), am not and is not (isn't).

I ain't stupid. (I am not stupid)
We ain't joking. (We aren't joking)

You'll find this (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ain't) interesting.

ain't = are not (aren't), am not, is not (isn't)
gotta = got to
gonna = going to
wanna = want a / want to
getcha = get you
gotcha = got you
hafta = have to
hasta = has to
y'all = you all

10/03/2007, 21:05
That's right, Gise.

I also heard in Brooklyn, N.Y. some young black boys playing and saying : "Gimme the boa" (they meant : "Give me the ball !"). That was in the early sixties, under the Kennedy administration.

About forty years later, an American friend of mine, who taught English for years, once told me that actually "You ain't nothing" is quite stupid 'cause it really means : "You are not nothing", so, in fact, one is saying : "You ARE someone" !!!! :confused:

12/03/2007, 16:19
Only the ghetto says "ain't".

Lately I've been watching "The Wire", which has tons of New York slang; I honesty struggle understanding it; that much that I have to have subtitles and time to time I ask my husband "what did he say, what does that mean?"

I had a bizarre encounter with an old dude this weekend. We were driving to Detroit and stop some where in Ohio to gas up; there was this old dude that came by and pointed at a death bird who was caught on our car's front and said "You got some lunch there", he picked a napkin and took the death bird off our car. Then he asked my husband "what do you do?"

That is bizarre.....No stranger is gonna just pop up on your face asking you out of the blue "what do you do" .

Apparently in that region, asking somebody "what do you do" when that person is obviously driving means "where are you going" or "where are you driving to", while in my region "what do you do" means "what do you do for living".....Funny.

I think that every place has a speaking code. :grin:


24/05/2007, 20:06
) Neg

They didn´t bought a new bike

S + didn't + V + rest of the sentence

IntLittle mistake ... They didn't BUY a new bike. :yo:

24/05/2007, 20:45
Little mistake ... They didn't BUY a new bike. :yo:
Cierto. Se me chispoteó.

25/05/2007, 18:50
That is a very common mistake for foreigners...Gosh I do it all the time...I always recall it right after I said it ,and I correct it...It's just not easy to set your mind up to make a question in past tense or a negative sentence different than just a sentence in past tense...

Bummer... :wink: